Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Network Administration Tools commands

netconf (as root)
A very good menu-driven setup of your network.

ping machine_name
Check if you can contact another machine (give the machine's name or IP), press [Ctrl]C when done (it keeps going).

route -n
Show the kernel routing table.

nslookup host_to_find
Query your default domain name server (DNS) for an Internet name (or IP number) host_to_find. This way you can check if your DNS works. You can also find out the name of the host of which you only know the IP number.

traceroute host_to_trace
Have a look how you messages trave to host_to_trace (which is either a host name or IP number).

ipfwadm -F -p m (for RH5.2, seen next command for RH6.0)
Set up the firewall IP forwarding policy to masquerading. (Not very secure but simple.) Purpose: all computers from your home network will appear to the outside world as one very busy machine and, for example, you will be allowed to browse the Internet from all computers at once.

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
ipfwadm-wrapper -F -p deny
ipfwadm-wrapper -F -a m -S xxx.xxx.xxx.0/24 -D
(three commands, RH6.0).
Does the same as the previous command. Substitute the "x"s with digits of your class "C" IP address that you assigned to your home network. See here for more details. In RH6.1, masquarading seems broken to me--I think I will install Mandrake Linux:).

ifconfig (as root)
Display info on the network interfaces currently active (ethernet, ppp, etc). Your first ethernet should show up as eth0, second as eth1, etc, first ppp over modem as ppp0, second as ppp1, etc. The "lo" is the "loopback only" interface which should be always active. Use the options (see ifconfig --help) to configure the interfaces.

ifup interface_name (/sbin/ifup to it run as a user)
Startup a network interface. E.g.: ifup eth0 ifup ppp0 Users can start up or shutdown the ppp interface only when the right permission was checked during the ppp setup (using netconf ). To start a ppp interface (dial-up connection), I normally use kppp available under kde menu "internet".

ifdown interface_name (/sbin/ifdown to run it as a user).
Shut down the network interface. E.g.: ifdown ppp0 Also, see the previous command.

netstat more
Displays a lot (too much?) information on the status of your network.

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